Ampex is an American electronics


  • Ampex is an American gadgets organization established in 1944 by Alexander M. Poniatoff. The name AMPEX is an acronym, made by its originator, which remains for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence.[1] At one time open, the staying continuous specialty unit (Ampex Information Frameworks Company) was gained by Delta Data Frameworks in October 2014, with the first parent, Ampex Partnership, stopping operations in October 2014. 

  • Ampex's first awesome achievement was a line of reel-to-reel recording devices created from the German wartime Magnetophon framework at the command of Bing Crosby. Ampex rapidly turned into a pioneer in sound tape innovation, creating a large portion of the simple recording designs for both music and films that stayed being used into the 1990s. Beginning in the 1950s the organization started creating video recording devices, which set the studio guidelines for a considerable length of time, and later presented the helical sweep idea that make home video players conceivable. They additionally presented multi-track recording, moderate movement and moment playback TV, and a large group of different advances. 

  • Ampex's tape business was rendered outdated amid the 1990s, and the organization swung to computerized stockpiling items. They never figured out how to wind up plainly a player in this field, and the organization was hopeless by the 2000s.Russian innovator Alexander Matthew Poniatoff set up the organization in San Carlos, California, in 1944 as the Ampex Electric and Assembling Organization. The name originated from his initials in addition to "ex" to abstain from utilizing the name (AMP, née Flying machine and Marine Items) as of now being used. Amid World War II, Ampex was a little maker of great electric engines and generators for radars that utilized alnico 5 magnets from General Electric.[2] Ampex's first workplaces were at 1313 Tree St. San Carlos California, "Howard Blvd. at Laurel".[3] 

  • Close to the finish of the war, while serving in the U.S. Armed force Flag Corps, Significant Jack Mullin was appointed to examine German radio and gadgets tests. He found the Magnetophons with air conditioning biasing on an excursion to Radio Frankfurt. The gadget created much preferable loyalty over shellac records. Mullin obtained two Magnetophon recorders and 50 reels of BASF Sort L tape, and conveyed them to America, where he delivered adjusted renditions. He exhibited them to the Foundation of Radio Specialists in San Francisco on May 16, 1946.[2] 

  • Bing Crosby, a major star on radio at the time, was open to the possibility of pre-recording his radio projects. He despised the regimentation of live communicates, and highly favored the casual climate of the recording studio. He had as of now requested that the NBC arrange let him pre-record his 1944-45 arrangement on interpretation plates, however the system cannot, so Crosby had pulled back from live radio for a year and gave back (this opportunity to the as of late made ABC) for the 1946-47 season just reluctantly. Another conceivable inspiration wasn't so much that Crosby needed the more casual environment of taping versus live however that live system radio required performing two indistinguishable demonstrates a night, one for the east drift and one for the west drift. This may have been what Crosby was wanting to maintain a strategic distance from, as that was the contention Crosby utilized with the radio system when he solicited to utilize translation circle recordings from his show. Those recordings were made specifically from the live east drift appear, similar to the later taped renditions. 

  • In June 1947, Mullin, who was pitching the innovation to the significant Hollywood motion picture studios, found the opportunity to show his adjusted recording devices to Crosby. At the point when Crosby heard an exhibition of Mullin's recording devices, he instantly observed the capability of the new innovation and charged Mullin to set up a test recording of his radio show. Ampex was completing its model of the Model 200 recording device and Mullin utilized the initial two models when they were fabricated. After an effective test communicate, ABC consented to permit Crosby to pre-record his shows on tape. Crosby instantly designated Mullin as his central architect and put in a request for $50,000 worth of the new recorders so that Ampex (then a little six-man concern) could build up a business creation display from the prototypes.[2] 

  • Crosby Undertakings was Ampex's West Drift delegate until 1957.The organization's first recording device, the Ampex Demonstrate 200A, was initially sent in April 1948. The initial two units, serial numbers 1 and 2, were utilized to record the Bing Crosby Show.[5] The American Telecom Organization utilized these recorders alongside 3M Scotch 111 gamma ferric oxide covered acetic acid derivation tape[6] for the first-historically speaking U.S. deferred radio communicate of The Bing Crosby Appear. Ampex recording devices altered the radio and recording ventures due to their unrivaled sound quality and simplicity of operation over sound plate cutting lathes.[5] 

  • Amid the mid 1950s Ampex started promoting one-and two-track machines utilizing  1⁄4-inch tape. The line soon ventured into three-and four-track models utilizing  1⁄2-inch tape. In the mid 1950s Ampex moved to 934 Sanction St. Redwood City, California. Ampex obtained Orradio Enterprises in 1959, which turned into the Ampex Attractive Tape Division, headquartered in Opelika, Alabama. This made Ampex a producer of both recorders and tape. Before that decade's over Ampex items were much sought after by top recording studios around the world. 

  • In 1952, motion picture maker Mike Todd requested that Ampex build up a high constancy motion picture sound framework utilizing sound attractively recorded on the film itself, as diverged from the innovation of the time, which utilized attractive tracks on a different celluloid base film (later ordinarily known as mag stock). The consequence of this advancement was the CinemaScope/Todd-AO film sound system,[7] which was initially utilized as a part of motion pictures, for example, The Robe (1953) in 35mm and Oklahoma (1955) in 70mm (and furthermore in 35mm). In 1960, the Foundation of Movie Expressions and Sciences granted Ampex an Oscar for specialized accomplishment thus of this advancement. 

  • Les Paul, a companion of Crosby and a normal visitor on his shows, had as of now been trying different things with overdubbed recordings on plate. He got an early versatile Ampex Demonstrate 200A from Crosby. He designed Sound on Sound recording utilizing this machine. He put an extra playback head, situated before the routine delete/record/playback heads. This permitted Paul to play alongside a formerly recorded track, both of which were combined on to another track. This was a ruinous procedure in light of the fact that the first recording was recorded over.Ampex fabricated a modest bunch of multitrack machines amid the late 1950s that could record upwards of eight tracks on 1 inch tape. The venture was supervised by Ross Snyder, Ampex supervisor of exceptional items. To make the multitrack recorder work, Snyder concocted the Sel-Adjust prepare, which utilized a few tracks on the set out toward playback and different tracks on the set out toward recording. This made the recently recorded material be in a state of harmony with the current recorded tracks.[9] The first of these machines cost $10,000 and was introduced in Les Paul's home recording studio by David Sarser.[10][11] 

  • In 1967 Ampex reacted to request by venturing up generation of their 8-track machines with the creation show MM 1000. Like prior 8-track machines of this period it utilized 1 inch tape. 

  • 16 and 24-track recorders[edit] 

  • In 1966 Ampex fabricated their initial 16-track recorder, the model AG-1000, at the demand of Mirasound Studios in New York City. In 1967 Ampex presented a 16-track form of the MM 1000 which was the world's initial 16-track proficient recording device put into large scale manufacturing. Both utilized a 2-inch tape transport configuration adjusted from the video recording division. The 16-track MM-1000 rapidly ended up plainly incredible for its colossal adaptability, unwavering quality and exceptional sound quality. This achieved the "brilliant age" of extensive organization simple multitrack recorders which would last into the mid-1990s. MCI manufactured the initial 24-track recorder (utilizing 2 inch tape) in 1968 which was introduced at TTG Studios in Los Angeles. Later machines worked by Ampex beginning in 1969 would have upwards of 24 tracks on 2 inch tape. Furthermore, the presentation of SMPTE time code permitted studios to run numerous machines in impeccable synchronization, making the quantity of accessible tracks basically boundless. 

  • By the 1970s Ampex confronted intense rivalry from the Swiss organization Studer and Japanese producers, for example, Otari and Sony (who likewise obtained the MCI mark in 1982). In 1979 Ampex presented their most progressive 24-track recorder, the model ATR-124. It was considered by many to be the finest machine of its sort. The ATR-124 was toughly developed and had sound determinations that about matched the main advanced recording machines. Be that as it may, offers of the ATR-124 were ease back because of the machine's high sticker price. Ampex sold just around 50 or 60 ATR-124 machines, and pulled back from the expert sound recording device showcase totally in 1983.Starting in the mid 1950s, RCA, Bing Crosby and others attempted to record simple video on quick moving attractive tape. As ahead of schedule as 1952, Ampex created model video recording devices that utilized a turning head and moderately moderate moving tape. In mid 1956 a group drove by Charles Ginsburg delivered the primary tape recorder.[13] A youthful, 19-year-old architect Beam Dolby was likewise some portion of the team.[2] Ampex showed the VR-1000, which was the first of Ampex's line of 2 inch Quadruplex tape recorders on April 14, 1956, at the National Relationship of Radio and TV Supporters in Chicago. The principal attractively recorded time-postponed broadcasting company program utilizing the new Ampex Quadruplex recording framework was CBS's Douglas Edwards and the News on November 30, 1956. 

  • The "Quad" head get together turns at 14,400 rpm (NTSC). The four head pieces (quad) are exchanged progressively so that recorded stripes cross the video divide (a large portion of the tape center, sound is on one edge, control track is on the other) with the goal that go to ta
  • Ampex 2 inch helical VTRs were fabricated from 1963 to 1970. Display VR-1500 for home. The VR-660 for Communicate TV frameworks, mechanical organizations, instructive foundations, and a couple for In-flight amusement. The VR-1500 and VR-660 discovered administration at instructive establishments particularly because of their generally ease versus 2-inch quadruplex VTRs. These machines were easy to work, solid, little in size and delivered, for their time, great video without the many-sided quality of the bigger and a great deal more unpredictable 2" machines. 

  • HS-100 and HS-200 "slo-mo" circle recorder[edit] 

  • HS-100 circle 

  • HS-100 Controller 

  • In Walk 1967 Ampex presented the HS-100 video circle recorder. The framework was created by Ampex at the demand of the American Telecom Organization (ABC) for an assortment of games communicate employments. It was initially exhibited reporting in real time on Walk 18, 1967, when "ABC's Wide Universe of Games" broadcast the "World Arrangement of Skiing" from Vail, Colorado.[2] The video was recorded on simple attractive circle. The plate measured 5 pounds/2.3 kg and pivoted at 60rps, 3600rpm (50rps in Buddy). One NTSC unit could record 30 seconds of video, Buddy units 36 seconds. The video could then be played back in moderate movement, stop activity to solidify frame.[3] 

  • A more exclusive form, the HS-200, was presented around 1971, and given a vast control comfort with variable speed playback. This made it perfect for moment replay for games occasions and exact planning control in after generation benefit. CBS-television was the first to utilize the procedure amid live sportscasts, however it was immediately embraced by all American Broadcasting companies. The HS-200, which was a HS-100 associated with a control comfort when consolidated called the HS-200, had more prominent exact edge and timing control capacity, fitting after generation applications like embellishments and titles. The HS-200 had a casing precise planning PC that empowered edge exact cuts and break up moves by method for a two-input video switcher. Moderate movement successions could similarly be modified and could be "activated" to start by means of an outer control heartbeat, for example, may originate from an outside VTR supervisor like the Ampex VR-2000 VTR with Editec. The HS-200 was the main framework equipped for single-casing video liveliness recording, utilizing attractive plates instead of tape. The HS-200 likewise furnished a readout with particular edge numbers appearing from the 900 casings accessible (NTSC rendition.) Successions could be activated to begin from any of these 900 edges with casing exact repeatability for imaginative adjusting of arrangement begin and end points.1 inch sort A tape (assigned Sort A by the General public of Film and TV Engineers, SMPTE) was an open-reel helical output tape organize created by Ampex in 1965, one of the initially institutionalized open-reel tape designs in the 1 inch (25 mm) width; most others of that size around then were exclusive. 

  • Sort C[edit] 

  • Primary article: 1 inch sort C tape 

  • 1 inch sort C tape (assigned Sort C by SMPTE) was an expert open-reel tape arrange co-created and presented by Ampex and Sony in 1976. It turned into the substitution in the expert video and transmission businesses for the then-occupant Quadruplex. 

  • D2[edit] 

  • Principle article: D2 (video organize) 

  • D2 is a computerized video tape organize made by Ampex and different producers (through a measures gathering of SMPTE) and presented at the 1988 Grab (National Relationship of Supporters) tradition as a lower-cost other option to the D-1 arrange. Like D-1, D-2 video is uncompressed; in any case, it spares data transfer capacity and different expenses by examining a completely encoded NTSC or Buddy composite video flag, and putting away it specifically to attractive tape, instead of inspecting segment video. This is known as computerized composite. 

  • AMPEX DCT-1700D (1992) 

  • DCT and DST[edit] 

  • Primary article: Advanced Segment Innovation 

  • Advanced Part Innovation (DCT) and Information Stockpiling Innovation (DST) are VTR and information stockpiling gadgets separately, made by Ampex in 1992. Both were like the D1 and D2 VTR groups, utilizing a 19 mm (3/4") width, with the DCT design utilizing DCT (discrete cosine change) video pressure, additionally its namesake. 

  • The DCT and DST designs yielded moderately high limit and speed for information and video. Twofold thickness DST information stockpiling was presented in 1996. The last era of these items were quad thickness, presented in 2000, bringing about a substantial cartridge holding 660GB of information. 

  • Milestones[edit] 

  • In 1948, the principal tape-deferred U.S. radio program was communicate by utilizing an Ampex Display 200 recording device. 

  • In May 1949 Model 300 presented changes in sound head, tape drive and tape way. 

  • In 1950 Model 400 presented bring down cost proficient quality sound recorder, destined to be supplanted by the Model 400A, which was the sensible antecedent of the Model 350. 

  • In 1950, Ampex presented the initially "committed" instrumentation recorder, Model 500, worked for the U.S. Naval force. 

  • In April 1953 Model 350 acquainted sound recorder with supplant the Model 400/Display 400A. The Model 350 had greater straightforwardness and sturdiness. Ampex discharged the 35mm four-track CinemaScope stereo proliferation framework. 

  • In May 1954 Model 600 presented acing quality sound compact recorder. Models 3200-3300 fast duplicators likewise presented. 

  • In 1954, in a recording studio furnished with an Ampex reel-to-reel sound copying machine, an obscure truck driver named Elvis Presley recorded his memorable first single, "That is Good" at Sun Studios in Memphis. Additionally that year, Ampex presented the main multi-track sound recorder got from multi-track information recording innovation. 

  • In 1955, Ampex discharged the 70mm/35mm six-track/four-track Todd-AO framework, and an enhanced 35mm four-track framework. 

  • On Walk 14, 1956, The Ampex VRX-1000 (later renamed the Check IV) tape recorder is presented at the National Relationship of Radio and TV Supporters in Chicago. This is the principal functional tape recorder and is hailed as a noteworthy mechanical achievement. CBS goes on air with the main tape deferred communicate, Douglas Edwards and The News, on November 30, 1956, from Los Angeles, California, utilizing the Ampex Stamp IV. 

  • In Walk 1957, Ampex won an Emmy grant for the innovation of the Video Recording device (VTR). 

  • In 1958, NASA chose Ampex information recorders and attractive tape. It has been utilized for essentially all U.S. space missions since. 

  • In 1959, the Nixon-Khrushchev Kitchen Verbal confrontation was recorded on Ampex tape. The way that the open deliberation was being recorded was said by Nixon for instance of American mechanical advancement. 

  • In 1960, The Institute of Film Expressions and Sciences gave Ampex an Oscar for specialized accomplishment. 

  • January 1961 Helical output recording was concocted by Ampex. The innovation behind the overall purchaser video transformation; it is utilized as a part of all home Video Recording devices today. 

  • In 1963, Ampex innovation was utilized to demonstrate replays of the live death of Lee Harvey Oswald. 

  • In 1963 also, Ampex presented EDITEC, electronic video altering, permitting communicate TV editors outline by-casing recording control, streamlining tape altering and the capacity to make liveliness impacts conceivable. This was the reason for all ensuing altering frameworks. 

  • On December 7, 1963 – Moment Replay is utilized surprisingly amid the live transmission of the Armed force Naval force Amusement by its innovator, executive, Tony Verna. 

  • In April 1964, Ampex presented the VR-2000 high band tape recorder, the main ever to be fit for shading devotion required for top notch shading broadcasting. 

  • February 1965 presented VR-303\VR-7000 shut circuit video recording device. 

  • May 1965 presented AG-350 first all-transistorized sound recorder. 

  • July 1965 presented VR-660B VTR propelled variant of VR-660; replaces VR-660/1500. 

  • November 1965 presented VR-7000 minimized convenient shut circuit video recording device. 

  • Amid 1966–1967, Ampex FR-900 drives were utilized to tape the primary pictures of the Earth from the Moon, as a major aspect of the Lunar Orbiter program. Starting at 2009, two drives are being repaired to recuperate the pictures as a feature of the Lunar Orbiter Picture Recuperation Extend (LOIRP).
  • In 1967, ABC utilized the Ampex HS-100 circle recorder for moderate movement playback of downhill skiing on the program World Arrangement of Skiing in Vail, Colorado. This was the primary utilization of moderate movement moment replay in wearing occasions. 

  • In 1968, the presentation of the Ampex VR-3000 alters video recording: the principal really convenient VTR. It is utilized at the '68 Summer Olympics in Mexico City to take after the world's crosscountry runners without precedent for Communicate history. 

  • In 1969 Ampex presented Videofile, still being used today at Scotland Yard for the electronic stockpiling and recovery of fingerprints. 

  • In 1972, Ampex presented the ACR-25, the initially computerized automated library framework for the recording and playback of TV ads. Every business was recorded on an individual cartridge. These cartridges were then stacked into a substantial pivoting merry go round. Utilizing complex mechanics and vacuum pneumatics, the "trucks" were stacked into and removed from the machine with a 8-second process duration for spots under 61 seconds. This liberated Television slots from stacking singular machines with spots progressively, or planning spot reels ahead of time of a communicate. The television newsroom likewise started to utilize the ACR-25 to run news stories on account of its arbitrary get to ability. The ACR-25 utilized AVR-1 flag, servo, and timebase frameworks, and a machine-programming control sound planned by Ampex design E. Stanley Busby. Both machines had a lockup time of 200 milliseconds, as unmistakable from the business standard 5 second pre-roll. This was proficient with optical-vacuum reel servos giving the vacuum capstan irrelevant inertial mass to control, and prescient computerized servos that could re-outline vertically at flat rate, and in addition timebase revision with a window surpassing 64 microseconds (contrasted with the VR-2000's window of under 5 microseconds). 

  • Likewise in 1970, Ampex began its own particular record name, Ampex Records. Its greatest hit was "We Gotta Get You A Lady" by Todd Rundgren (as "Runt"), achieving #20 on the outlines in 1970. 

  • In 1978, the Ampex Video Workmanship (AVA™) video representation framework is utilized by craftsman Leroy Nieman on air amid Super Bowl XII. AVA, the principal video paint framework, permits the visual craftsman, utilizing an electronic pen, to delineate in another medium, video. This development made ready for now's top notch electronic design, for example, those utilized as a part of computer games. 

  • In 1983, Ampex presented the DCRS advanced tape recorder, offering conservative tape stockpiling with what might as well be called 16 computerized or 8 DDR instrumentation reels on one tape. Additionally, Incomplete Reaction Most extreme Probability (PRML) information deciphering innovation has its first use in Ampex's DCRsi™ recorders. This innovation is presently ordinarily utilized as a part of elite PC circle drives and other high thickness attractive information stockpiling gadgets. 

  • In 1982, Ampex presented DST (superior PC mass stockpiling items ready to store a large portion of the Library of Congress in 21 square feet (2.0 m2) of floor space) and DCT, the primary computerized segment after creation framework utilizing picture pressure innovation to deliver amazing pictures. 

  • In 1985, Ampex presented the DIS™ 120i and DIS™ 160i double port, information/instrumentation recorders. These made it workable surprisingly to catch ongoing instrumentation information and after that use a similar recorder to prepare the information in a PC domain during its time port utilizing SCSI-2 convention. 

  • In 2005, Ampex got its twelfth Emmy grant for its innovation of moderate movement shading recording and playback. Additionally respected with Lifetime Accomplishment Honors were the individuals from the designing group that made the tape recorder when they worked for Ampex: Charles Andersen, Beam Dolby, Shelby Henderson, Fred Pfost, and the late Charles Ginsburg and Alex Maxey.Some ace tapes and different recordings prevalently from the 1980s have corrupted because of the alleged sticky-shed disorder: the coupling operator disintegrates, bringing about the attractive covering falling off the base and either adhering to the sponsorship of the tape layer twisted on top of it (bringing about dropout), or being scratched off and kept on the tape heads while lifting the take off the tape, debasing the treble. 

  • shed on head 

  • shed on head 

  • Shed on guide 

  • Shed on guide 

  • Sticky shed from 1/4" Ampex 456 tape on the tape head and tape guide of a Methods RS-1500 

  • The issue has been accounted for on various makes of tape (more often than not back-covered tapes), including Ampex tapes. 

  • Ampex documented U.S. Patent 5,236,790[17] for a heating procedure ("A run of the mill temperature utilized is 54 °C (129 °F) and a run of the mill time is 16 hours") to endeavor to recoup such tapes, permitting them to be played again and the recordings exchanged to new media. The issues have been accounted for on tapes of sort 406/407, 456/457, 2020/373. 

  • Branding[edit] 

  • In 1959, Ampex procured Orradio Ventures and it turned into the Ampex Attractive Tape Division. 

  • In 1995, Ampex stripped this division, then called the Ampex Recording Media Company. This progressed toward becoming Quantegy, Inc., which later changed its name to the current Quantegy Recording Arrangements. 

  • In January 2005, having beforehand petitioned for liquidation assurance, Quantegy shut its assembling office in Opelika.[18] 

  • In October 2014, Ampex Information Frameworks Company was sold to Delta Data Frameworks, yet holds the rights to the Ampex name. 

  • Record labels[edit] 

  • Ampex Records began in 1970. Its greatest hit was "We Gotta Get You A Lady" by Todd Rundgren (as "Runt"), achieving #20 on the Bulletin Hot 100 outlines in 1970. Ampex additionally started two backup marks, Bearsville and Enormous Tree. Ampex Records stopped around 1973 and Bearsville and Huge Tree changed circulation to Warner Brothers. Records and Chime Records, individually. Later on, Huge Tree was grabbed by Atlantic Records.In 2005, iNEXTV, an entirely claimed auxiliary of respondent Ampex Organization, brought a slander claim against a notice on a Web message board who posted messages condemning of them (Ampex Corp. v. Cargle (2005), Cal.App.4th ). The publication, a previous representative, reacted with an against SLAPP suit and in the long run recuperated his lawyer charges. The case was one of a kind in that it included the lawfulness of discourse in an electronic open forum.

  • Current situation 

  • The previous parent organization, Ampex Partnership, no longer has any representatives. Between Walk 30, 2008 and October of that year, Ampex Corp. revamped under Section 11, and stripped itself of its staying going worries in October, 2014.

  • Some previous auxiliaries of Ampex Organization, Ampex Information Frameworks Company, Ampex Information Frameworks Worldwide and Ampex Japan Ltd, stay as a feature of the Delta Data Frameworks group,fabricating rough recording frameworks for the aviation and guard ventures, and which beforehand likewise delivered computerized filing frameworks for both communicate and aviation/resistance applications. 

  • The Ampex video framework is presently out of date, however a large number of quadruplex tape recordings remain. Machines that survive are utilized to exchange chronicled recordings to current computerized video designs. 

  • Ampex Partnership upheld the Ampex Gallery of Attractive Recording, began by Dwindle Hammar in 1982.The substance of that exhibition hall were given to Stanford in 2001.

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