Europa, along with Jupiter's three other large moons


  • Marginally littler than the Moon, Europa is essentially made of silicate shake and has a water-ice crust[11] and most likely an iron–nickel center. It has a shaky environment made basically out of oxygen. Its surface is striated by splits and streaks, while cavities are moderately uncommon. It has the smoothest surface of any known strong question in the Sunlight based System.[12] The clear youth and smoothness of the surface have prompted the speculation that a water sea exists underneath it, which could possibly serve as a house extraterrestrial life.[13] The overwhelming model recommends that warmth from tidal flexing causes the sea to stay fluid and drives ice development like plate tectonics, retaining chemicals from the surface into the sea below.[14][15] Additionally, ocean salt from a subsurface sea might coat some geographical elements on Europa, proposing that the sea is connecting with the ocean bottom. This might be essential in figuring out whether Europa could be habitable.[16] 

  • What's more, the Hubble Space Telescope recognized water vapor crest like those saw on Saturn's moon Enceladus, which are thought to be brought on by ejecting cryogeysers.[17] 

  • The Galileo mission, propelled in 1989, gives the main part of current information on Europa. No shuttle has yet arrived on Europa, yet its interesting qualities have prompted a few aspiring investigation proposition. The European Space Organization's Jupiter Frosty Moon Wayfarer (JUICE) is a mission to Ganymede that is because of dispatch in 2022, yet it will lead two flybys of Europa.[18] NASA's arranged Europa Numerous Flyby Mission will be propelled in the mid-2020sEuropa, alongside Jupiter's three other substantial moons, Io, Ganymede, and Callisto, were found by Galileo Galilei on 8 January 1610,[1] and potentially freely by Simon Marius. The initially reported perception of Io and Europa was made by Galileo Galilei on 7 January 1610 utilizing a 20×-amplification refracting telescope at the College of Padua. In any case, in that perception, Galileo couldn't separate Io and Europa because of the low amplification of his telescope, so that the two were recorded as a solitary purpose of light. The next day, 8 January 1610 (utilized as the disclosure date for Europa by the IAU), Io and Europa were seen interestingly as partitioned bodies amid Galileo's perceptions of the Jupiter system.[1] 

  • Europa is named after Europa, girl of the lord of Tire, a Phoenician aristocrat in Greek mythology. Like all the Galilean satellites, Europa is named after a significant other of Zeus, the Greek partner of Jupiter. Europa was sought by Zeus and turned into the ruler of Crete.[20] The naming plan was recommended by Simon Marius, who found the four satellites independently.[21] Marius credited the proposition to Johannes Kepler.[21][22] 

  • The names dropped out of support for an impressive time and were not restored all in all utilization until the mid-twentieth century.[23] In a great part of the prior cosmic writing, Europa is essentially alluded to by its Roman numeral assignment as Jupiter II (a framework likewise presented by Galileo) or as the "second satellite of Jupiter". In 1892, the revelation of Amalthea, whose circle lay nearer to Jupiter than those of the Galilean moons, pushed Europa to the third position. The Voyager tests found three more internal satellites in 1979, so Europa is currently viewed as Jupiter's 6th satellite, however it is still infrequently alluded to as Jupiter.Europa circles Jupiter in a little more than three and a half days, with an orbital range of around 670,900 km. With an unconventionality of just 0.009, the circle itself is about round, and the orbital slant in respect to Jupiter's tropical plane is little, at 0.470°.[24] Like its kindred Galilean satellites, Europa is tidally bolted to Jupiter, with one half of the globe of Europa continually confronting Jupiter. Due to this, there is a sub-Jovian point on Europa's surface, from which Jupiter would seem to hang straightforwardly overhead. Europa's prime meridian is the line crossing this point.[25] Research recommends the tidal locking may not be full, as a non-synchronous revolution has been proposed: Europa turns speedier than it circles, or if nothing else did as such previously. This proposes an asymmetry in inward mass conveyance and that a layer of subsurface fluid isolates the frigid covering from the rough interior.[6] 

  • The slight capriciousness of Europa's circle, kept up by the gravitational unsettling influences from alternate Galileans, causes Europa's sub-Jovian indicate sway around a mean position. As Europa comes somewhat closer to Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational fascination builds, making Europa prolong towards and far from it. As Europa moves somewhat far from Jupiter, Jupiter's gravitational constrain diminishes, making Europa unwind again into a more round shape, and making tides in its sea. The orbital erraticism of Europa is ceaselessly pumped by its mean-movement reverberation with Io.[26] Along these lines, the tidal flexing manipulates Europa's inside and gives it a wellspring of warmth, perhaps permitting its sea to stay fluid while driving subsurface land processes.[14][26] a definitive wellspring of this vitality is Jupiter's pivot, which is tapped by Io through the tides it raises on Jupiter and is exchanged to Europa and Ganymede by the orbital resonance.[26][27] 

  • Researchers breaking down the remarkable splits lining Europa discovered confirmation demonstrating that it likely spun around a tilted hub sooner or later in time. On the off chance that right, this would clarify a large portion of Europa's components. Europa's monstrous system of befuddling breaks serves as a record of the hassles brought on by enormous tides in its worldwide sea. Europa's tilt could impact computations of the amount of its history is recorded in its solidified shell, how much warmth is created by tides in its sea, and even to what extent the sea has been fluid. Its ice layer must extend to suit these progressions. At the point when there is an excessive amount of push, it breaks. A tilt in Europa's pivot could propose that its breaks might be substantially more later than beforehand suspected. The reason is that the bearing of the turn post may change by as much as a couple of degrees for every day, finishing one precession period more than a while. A tilt additionally could influence the evaluations of the age of Europa's sea. Tidal powers are thought to create the warmth that keeps Europa's sea fluid, and a tilt in the turn pivot implies that more warmth is produced by tidal powers. This warmth helps the sea to stay fluid longer. Researchers did not indicate when the tilt would have happened and estimations have not been made of the tilt of Europa's axisEuropa is marginally littler than the Moon. At a little more than 3,100 kilometers (1,900 mi) in distance across, it is the 6th biggest moon and fifteenth-biggest protest in the Close planetary system. In spite of the fact that by a wide edge the minimum monstrous of the Galilean satellites, it is in any case more enormous than every single known moon in the Nearby planetary group littler than itself combined.[29] Its mass thickness recommends that it is comparable in structure to the earthbound planets, being principally made out of silicate rock.[30] 

  • Inner structure[edit] 

  • It is evaluated that Europa has an external layer of water around 100 km (62 mi) thick; a section solidified as its hull, and a section as a fluid sea underneath the ice. Late attractive field information from the Galileo orbiter demonstrated that Europa has a prompted attractive field through cooperation with Jupiter's, which proposes the nearness of a subsurface conductive layer.[31] This layer is likely a salty fluid water sea. Segments of the hull are evaluated to have experienced a turn of almost 80°, about flipping over (see genuine polar meander), which would be improbable if the ice were decidedly appended to the mantle.[32] Europa presumably contains a metallic iron core.[33] 

  • Surface features[edit] 

  • Rough characteristic shading (left) and improved shading (right) Galileo perspective of driving half of the globe 

  • Europa is one of the smoothest protests in the Nearby planetary group, because of the absence of extensive scale components, for example, mountains or craters.[34] Nonetheless; on a littler scale, Europa's equator has been guessed to be secured in 10-meter tall frigid spikes called penitentes, which are brought about by the impact of direct overhead daylight on the equator, softening vertical cracks.[35] The conspicuous markings mismatching Europa appear to chiefly be albedo highlights that stress low geology. There are couple of cavities on Europa, since its surface is structurally excessively dynamic and along these lines young.[36][37] Europa's cold outside has an albedo (light reflectivity) of 0.64, one of the most noteworthy of all moons.[24][37] This demonstrates a youthful and dynamic surface, taking into account evaluations of the recurrence of cometary barrage that Europa likely encounters, the surface is around 20 to 180 million years old.[38] There is right now no full experimental accord among the occasionally conflicting clarifications for the surface elements of Europa.[39] 

  • The radiation level at the surface of Europa is identical to a measurement of around 5400 mSv (540 rem) per day,[40] a measure of radiation that would bring about serious ailment or passing in individuals uncovered for a solitary day.

  • Different elements introduce on Europa are round and curved lenticulae (Latin for "spots"). Numerous are arches, some are pits and some are smooth, dull spots. Others have a muddled or harsh surface. The vault tops look like bits of the more established fields around them, recommending that the arches shaped when the fields were pushed up from below.[48] 

    • One speculation expresses that these lenticulae were framed by diapirs of warm ice ascending through the colder ice of the external outside layer, much like magma chambers in Earth's crust.[48] The smooth, dim spots could be shaped by meltwater discharged when the warm ice gets through the surface. The unpleasant, cluttered lenticulae (called areas of "mayhem"; for instance, Conamara Disarray) would then be shaped from numerous little parts of outside layer, implanted in hummocky, dim material, seeming like ice shelves in a solidified sea.[49] 

    • An option speculation propose that lenticulae are quite ranges of turmoil and that the guaranteed pits, spots and vaults are antiquities coming about because of over-elucidation of right on time, low-determination Galileo pictures. The suggestion is that the ice is too thin to bolster the convective diapir model of highlight formation.[50][51] 

    • In November 2011, a group of analysts from the College of Texas at Austin and somewhere else displayed prove in the diary Nature recommending that numerous "turmoil territory" includes on Europa sit on limitless pools of fluid water.[52][53] These lakes would be completely encased in Europa's cold external shell and unmistakable from a fluid sea thought to exist more remote down underneath the ice shell. Full affirmation of the lakes' presence will require a space mission intended to test the ice shell either physically or in a roundabout way, for instance, utilizing radar.Scientists' agreement is that a layer of fluid water exists underneath Europa's surface, and that warmth from tidal flexing permits the subsurface sea to remain liquid.[14][54] Europa's surface temperature midpoints around 110 K (−160 °C; −260 °F) at the equator and just 50 K (−220 °C; −370 °F) at the posts, keeping Europa's cold covering as hard as granite.[8] The main insights of a subsurface sea originated from hypothetical contemplations of tidal warming (an outcome of Europa's somewhat unusual circle and orbital reverberation with the other Galilean moons). Galileo imaging colleagues contend for the presence of a subsurface sea from examination of Voyager and Galileo images.[54] The most emotional illustration is "turmoil landscape", a typical element on Europa's surface that some decipher as a locale where the subsurface sea has liquefied through the frigid outside layer. This translation is disputable. Most geologists who have examined Europa support what is usually called the "thick ice" display, in which the sea has once in a while, if at any time, specifically interfaced with the present surface.[55] The best confirmation for the thick-ice model is an investigation of Europa's substantial pits. The biggest effect structures are encompassed by concentric rings and give off an impression of being loaded with generally level, new ice; in light of this and on the figured measure of warmth created by Europan tides, it is evaluated that the external hull of strong ice is around 10–30 km (6–19 mi) thick,[56] including a malleable "warm ice" layer, which could imply that the fluid sea underneath might be around 100 km (60 mi) deep.[38][57] This prompts a volume of Europa's seas of 3 × 1018 m3, between a few times the volume of Earth's oceans.[58][59] 

    • The thin-ice show proposes that Europa's ice shell might be just a couple of kilometers thick. In any case, most planetary researchers reason that this model considers just those highest layers of Europa's outside that carry on flexibly when influenced by Jupiter's tides. One illustration is flexure examination, in which Europa's hull is demonstrated as a plane or circle weighted and flexed by a substantial load. Models, for example, this propose the external versatile parcel of the ice outside could be as thin as 200 meters (660 ft). In the event that the ice shell of Europa is truly just a couple of kilometers thick, this "thin ice" model would imply that consistent contact of the fluid inside with the surface could happen through open edges, bringing about the development of zones of disorganized terrain.The Galileo orbiter found that Europa has a feeble attractive minute, which is actuated by the fluctuating part of the Jovian attractive field. The field quality at the attractive equator (around 120 nT) made by this attractive minute is around one-6th the quality of Ganymede's field and six times the estimation of Callisto's.[61] The presence of the actuated minute requires a layer of a very electrically conductive material in Europa's inside. The most conceivable contender for this part is an expansive subsurface sea of fluid saltwater.[33] 

    • Since the Voyager rocket flew past Europa in 1979, researchers have attempted to comprehend the arrangement of the rosy chestnut material that coats cracks and other geographically young components on Europa's surface.[62] Spectrographic proof recommends that the dim, ruddy streaks and elements on Europa's surface might be rich in salts, for example, magnesium sulfate, stored by dissipating water that rose up out of within.[63] Sulfuric corrosive hydrate is another conceivable clarification for the contaminant watched spectroscopically.[64] In either case, in light of the fact that these materials are dull or white when immaculate, some other material should likewise be available to represent the ruddy shading, and sulfur mixes are suspected.[65] 

    • Wellsprings of heat[edit] 

    • Tidal warming happens through the tidal rubbing and tidal flexing forms brought on by tidal speeding up: orbital and rotational vitality are disseminated as warmth in the center of the moon, the inner sea, and the ice crust.[66] 

    • Tidal rubbing 

    • Sea tides are changed over to warm by frictional misfortunes in the seas and their collaboration with the strong base and with the top ice covering. In late 2008, it was recommended Jupiter may keep Europa's seas warm by creating extensive planetary tsunamis on Europa in view of its little however non-zero obliquity. This produces alleged Rossby waves that travel gradually, at only a couple of kilometers for every day, except can create noteworthy dynamic vitality. For the ebb and flow hub tilt gauge of 0.1 degree, the reverberation from Rossby waves would contain 7.3×1017 J of active vitality, which is two thousand times bigger than that of the stream energized by the prevailing tidal forces.[67][68] Scattering of this vitality could be the key warmth wellspring of Europa's ocean.[67][68] 

    • Tidal flexing 

    • Tidal flexing manipulates Europa's inside and ice shell, which turns into a wellspring of heat.[69] Relying upon the measure of tilt, the warmth created by the sea stream could be 100 to a huge number of times more prominent than the warmth produced by the flexing of Europa's rough center because of gravitational draw from Jupiter and alternate moons surrounding that planet.[70] Europa's ocean bottom could be warmed by the moon's steady flexing, driving aqueous movement like undersea volcanoes in Earth's oceans.[66] 

    • Tests and ice displaying distributed in 2016, show that tidal flexing scattering can create one request of extent more warmth in Europa's ice than researchers had already assumed.[71][72] Their outcomes demonstrates that the greater part of the warmth created by the ice, really originates from the ice's crystalline structure (cross section) as an aftereffect of distortion, and not rubbing between the ice grains.[71][72] The more prominent the disfigurement of the ice sheet, the more warmth is generated.In expansion to tidal warming, the inside of Europa could likewise be warmed by the rot of radioactive material (radiogenic warming) inside the rough mantle.[66][73] However the models and values watched are one hundred times higher than those that could be delivered by radiogenic warming alone,[74] consequently inferring that tidal warming has a main part in Europa.[75] 

    • Plumes[edit] 

    • Water vapor tufts on Jupiter's moon Europa (craftsman's impression)[76] 

    • The Hubble Space Telescope obtained a picture of Europa in 2012 that was translated to be a crest of water vapor ejecting from close to its south pole.[76] The picture proposes the tuft might be 200 km (120 mi) high, or more than 20 times the stature of Mt. Everest.[17][77][78] It has been proposed that on the off chance tha!t they exist, they are episodic[79] and prone to show up when Europa is at its most remote point from Jupiter, in concurrence with tidal compel demonstrating predictions.[80] Extra imaging proof from the Hubble Space Telescope was introduced in September 2016.The tidal strengths are around 1,000 times more grounded than the Moon's impact on Earth. The main other moon in the Close planetary system displaying water vapor crest is Enceladus.[17] The assessed ejection rate at Europa is around 7000 kg/s[80] contrasted with around 200 kg/s for! the crest of Enceladus.[84][85] If affirmed, it would open the likelihood of a flyby through the crest and get a specimen to investigate in situ without using a lander and bore through miles of ice.Observations with the Goddard High Determination Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope, initially portrayed in 1995, uncovered that Europa has a thin climate made for the most part out of atomic oxygen (O2).[87][88] The surface weight of Europa's air is 0.1 μPa, or 10−12 times that of the Earth.[9] In 1997, the Galileo shuttle affirmed the nearness of a questionable ionosphere (an upper-environmental layer of charged particles) around Europa made by sunlight based radiation and lively particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere,[89][90] giving proof of an air. 

    • Attractive field around Europa. The red line demonstrates a direction of the Galileo shuttle amid a run of the mill flyby (E4 or E14). 

    • Not at all like the oxygen in Earth's climate, Europa's is not of natural beginning. The surface-limited air frames through radiol!ysis, the separation of atoms through radiation.[91] Sun powered bright radiation and charged (particles and electrons) from the Jovian magnetospheric environmen.
    • The sub-atomic hydrogen that escapes Europa's gravity, alongside nuclear and sub-atomic oxygen, frames a gas torus in the region of Europa's circle around Jupiter. This "nonpartisan cloud" has been identified by both the Cassini and Galileo rocket, and has a more prominent substance (number of particles and atoms) than the impartial cloud encompassing Jupiter's internal moon Io. Models foresee that practically every particle or atom in Europa's torus is in the long run ionized, along these lines giving a source to Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma. [97] 

    • Exploration[edit] 

    • Pioneer 10 caught in 1973 the primary closeup pictures of Europa – however the test was too far away to get more point by point pictures 

    • Europa found in detail in 1979 by Voyager 2 

    • Investigation of Europa started with the Jupiter flybys of Pioneer 10 and 11 in 1973 and 1974 individually. The principal closeup photographs were of low determination contrasted with later missions. The two Voyager tests went through the Jovian framework in 1979, giving more-point by point pictures of Europa's frosty surface. The pictures brought on numerous researchers to hypothesize about the likelihood of a fluid sea underneath. Beginning in 1995, the Galileo spaceprobe circled Jupiter for a long time, until 2003, and gave the most nitty gritty examination of the Galilean moons to date. It incorporated the "Galileo Europa Mission" and "Galileo Thousand years Mission", with various close flybys of Europa.[98] In 2007, New Skylines imaged Europa, as it flew by the Jovian framework while on its approach to Pluto.[99] 

    • Future missions[edit] 

    • Guesses with respect to extraterrestrial life have guaranteed a prominent for Europa and have prompted relentless campaigning for future missions.[100][101] The points of these missions have gone from looking at Europa's compound creation to scanning for extraterrestrial life in its speculated subsurface oceans.[102][103] Mechanical missions to Europa need to persevere through the high radiation environment around itself and Jupiter.[101] Europa gets around 5.40 Sv of radiation for each day.[104] 

    • In 2011, an Europa mission was prescribed by the U.S. Planetary Science Decadal Survey.[105] accordingly, NASA dispatched Europa lander idea studies in 2011, alongside ideas for an Europa flyby (Europa Scissors), and an Europa orbiter.[106][107] The orbiter component alternative focuses on the "sea" science, while the numerous flyby component (Scissors) focuses on the science and vitality science. On 13 January 2014, the House Apportionments Board of trustees reported another bipartisan bill that incorporates $80 million financing to proceed with the Europa mission idea studies.[108][109] 

    • Europa Numerous Flyby Mission — In July 2013 a redesigned idea for a flyby Europa mission called Europa Scissors was displayed by the Fly Drive Research center (JPL) and the Connected Material science Lab (APL).[110] In May 2015, NASA declared that it had acknowledged to build up the Europa Scissors mission, and uncovered the instruments it will use.[111] The point of Europa Scissors is to investigate Europa keeping in mind the end goal to explore its livability, and to help selecting locales for a future lander. The Europa Scissors would not circle Europa, but rather circle Jupiter and lead 45 low-height flybys of Europa amid its imagined mission. The test would convey an ice-entering radar, short-wave infrared spectrometer, geographical imager, and a particle and unbiased mass spectrometer. 

    • In 2012, Jupiter Cold Moon Traveler (JUICE) was chosen by the European Space Office (ESA) as an arranged mission.[18][112] That mission incorporates 2 flybys of Europa, yet is more centered around Ganymede.[113] 

    • Old proposals[edit] 

    • Left: craftsman's idea of the cryobot and its sent "hydrobot" submersible. Right: Europa Lander Mission idea, NASA 2005[114] 

    • In the mid 2000s, Jupiter Europa Orbiter drove by NASA and the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter drove by the ESA were proposed together as an External Planet Leader Mission to Jupiter's frigid moons, and called Europa Jupiter Framework Mission with an arranged dispatch in 2020.[115] In 2009 it was given need over Titan Saturn Framework Mission.[116] around then, there was rivalry from other proposals.[117] Japan proposed Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter. 

    • Jovian Europa Orbiter was an ESA Vast Vision idea study from 2007. Another idea was Ice Clipper,[118] which would have utilized an impactor like the Profound Effect mission—it would make a controlled collide with the surface of Europa, creating a tuft of flotsam and jetsam that would then be gathered by a little rocket flying through the plume.[118][119] 

    • Jupiter Frigid Moons Orbiter (JIMO) was an in part created splitting fueled shuttle with particle thrusters that was drop in 2006.[101][120] It was a piece of Venture Prometheus.[120] The Europa Lander Mission proposed a little atomic controlled Europa lander for JIMO.[121] It would go with the orbiter, which would likewise work as a correspondence transfer to Earth.[121] 

    • Europa Orbiter — Its target would be to describe the degree of the sea and its connection to the more profound inside. Instrument payload could incorporate a radio subsystem, laser altimeter, magnetometer, Langmuir test, and a mapping camera.[122][123] 

    • Europa Lander — It would examine Europa's tenability and evaluate its astrobiological potential by affirming the presence and deciding the attributes of water inside and underneath Europa's cold shell.[124] 

    • The Europa Orbiter got a thumbs up in 1999 however was scratched off in 2002. This orbiter highlighted an extraordinary radar that would permit it to filter beneath the surface.[34] 

    • More eager thoughts have been advanced incorporating an impactor in mix with a warm penetrate to hunt down biosignatures that may be solidified in the shallow subsurface.[125][126] 

    • Another proposition set forward in 2001 requires a huge atomic fueled "soften test" (cryobot) that would dissolve through the ice until it achieved a sea below.[101][127] Once it achieved the water, it would convey an independent submerged vehicle (hydrobot) that would assemble data and send it back to Earth.[128] Both the cryobot and the hydrobot would need to experience some type of extraordinary disinfection to anticipate discovery of Earth living beings rather than local life and to forestall pollution of the subsurface ocean.[129] This proposed mission has not yet achieved a genuine arranging stage.Europa has developed as a standout amongst the in all likelihood areas in the Close planetary system for potential habitability.[96][131] Life could exist in its under-ice sea, maybe in a situation like Earth's profound sea aqueous vents.[102][132] Regardless of the possibility that Europa needs volcanic aqueous movement, a 2016 NASA contemplate observed that Earth-like levels of hydrogen and oxygen could be created through procedures identified with serpentinization and ice-determined oxidants, which don't specifically include volcanism.[133] In 2015, researchers declared that salt from a subsurface sea may likely be covering some land highlights on Europa, recommending that the sea is communicating with the ocean bottom. This might be vital in figuring out whether Europa could be habitable.[16][134] As such, there is no confirmation that life exists on Europa, yet the possible nearness of fluid water in contact with Europa's rough mantle has impelled calls to send a test there.[135] 

    • The vitality gave by tidal flexing drives dynamic topographical procedures inside Europa's inside, pretty much as they do to a significantly more evident degree on its sister moon Io. Despite the fact that Europa, similar to the Earth, may have an inward vitality source from radioactive rot, the vitality produced by tidal flexing would be a few requests of extent more noteworthy than any radiological source.The vitality from tidal flexing would never bolster a biological system in Europa's sea as vast and different as the photosynthesis-construct environment with respect to Earth's surface.Life on Europa could exist bunched around aqueous vents on the sea floor, or underneath the sea floor, where endoliths are known to possess on Earth. On the other hand, it could exist sticking to the lower surface of Europa's ice layer, much like green growth and microscopic organisms in Earth's polar districts, or buoy openly in Europa's ocean.If Europa's sea is excessively cool, natural procedures comparative, making it impossible to those known on Earth couldn't happen. In the event that it is excessively salty, just extraordinary halophiles could get by in that environment.Evidence recommends the presence of pools of fluid water completely encased in Europa's cold external shell and unmistakable from a fluid sea thought to exist more distant down underneath the ice shell.If affirmed, the lakes could be yet another potential living space forever. 

    • Prove proposes that hydrogen peroxide is copious crosswise over a great part of the surface of Europa.In light of the fact that hydrogen peroxide rots into oxygen and water when consolidated with fluid water, the creators contend that it could be a vital vitality supply for basic life frames. 

    • Mud like minerals (particularly, phyllosilicates), regularly connected with natural matter on Earth, have been identified on the frosty covering of Europa.The nearness of the minerals may have been the consequence of a crash with a space rock or comet.

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