The standard release of Drupal, known as Drupal core


  • The standard release of Drupal, known as Drupal core, contains basic features common to content-management systems. These include user account registration and maintenance, menu management, RSS feeds, taxonomy, page layout customization, and system administration. The Drupal core installation can serve as a simple Web site, a single- or multi-user blog, an Internet forum, or a community Web site providing for user-generated content.

  • "The Drupal Overview", a feature of the project web site, describes it as a content management framework.[5] Drupal also describes itself [11] as a Web application framework, as it meets the generally accepted[by whom?] feature requirements for such frameworks.[citation needed]

  • As of April 2015 the Drupal community, comprising more than one million members (as of October 2013)[12] and over 30,000 developers (as of February 2014),[13] has contributed more than 33,000 modules that alter and extend the core capabilities, behavior, and appearance of a Drupal site.[14]

  • Although Drupal offers a sophisticated API for developers, basic Web-site installation and administration of the framework require no programming skills.[15]

  • Drupal runs on any computing platform that supports both a Web server capable of running PHP and a database to store content and configuration.Originally written by Dries Buytaert as a message board, Drupal became an open source project in 2001.[19] The name Drupal represents an English rendering of the Dutch word "druppel", which means "drop" (as in "a water droplet").[20] The name came from the now-defunct Drop.org Web site, whose code slowly evolved into Drupal. Buytaert wanted to call the site "dorp" (Dutch for "village") for its community aspects, but mistyped it when checking the domain name and thought the error sounded better.[19]

  • Interest in Drupal got a significant boost in 2003 when it helped build "DeanSpace" for Howard Dean, one of the candidates in the U.S. Democratic Party's primary campaign for the 2004 U.S. presidential election. DeanSpace used open-source sharing of Drupal to support a decentralized network of approximately 50 disparate, unofficial pro-Dean websites that allowed users to communicate directly with one another as well as with the campaign.[21] After Dean ended his campaign, members of his Web team continued to pursue their interest in developing a Web platform that could aid political activism by launching CivicSpace Labs in July 2004, "the first company with full-time employees that was developing and distributing Drupal technology".[22] Other companies began to also specialize in Drupal development.[23][24] By 2013 the Drupal Web site listed hundreds of vendors that offered Drupal-related services.[25]

  • As of 2014 Drupal is developed by a community,[26] and its popularity is growing rapidly.[citation needed] From July 2007 to June 2008 the Drupal.org site provided more than 1.4 million downloads of Drupal software, an increase of approximately 125% from the previous year.[27][28]

  • As of February 2014 more than 1,015,000 sites used Drupal.[29] These include hundreds of well-known organizations,[30] including corporations, media and publishing companies, governments, non-profits,[31] schools, and individuals. Drupal has won several Packt Open Source CMS Awards[32] and won the Webware 100 three times in a row.[33][34]

  • On March 5, 2009 Buytaert announced a code freeze for Drupal 7 for September 1, 2009.[35] Drupal 7 was released on January 5, 2011, with release parties in several countries.[36] After that, maintenance on Drupal 5 stopped, with only Drupal 7 and Drupal 6 maintained.[37] Drupal 7 series maintenance updates are released regularly.[38]

  • On December 1, 2012, Drupal 8 started its feature completion.[39] About three years later, on October 7, 2015 Drupal 8 first release candidate (rc1) was announced.[40] Drupal 8 includes new features and improvements for both users and developers, including: a revamped user interface; WYSIWYG and in-place editing; improved mobile support; added and improved key contributed modules including Views, Date, and Entity Reference; introduced a new object-oriented backend leveraging Symfony components; revamped configuration management; and improved multilingual support. Drupal 8 rc1 is the collective work of over 3,200 core contributors.[41]

  • On January 15, 2015 a Drupal fork called Backdrop was released.[42]

  • Drupal 8.0.0 was released on November 19, 2015.[43] A subsequent upgrade to it is also available in the form of Drupal 8.1.0[44] that brings numerous improvements, including CKEditor WYSIWYG enhancements, added APIs, an improved help page, and two new experimental modules. Experimental modules are meant for testing purposes, but are not yet fully supported.

  • Core[edit]
  • In the Drupal community, the term "core" refers to the collaboratively built codebase that can be extended through contributory modules and for versions prior to Drupal 8 is kept outside of the "sites" folder of a Drupal installation.[45] (Starting with version 8, core is kept in its own 'core' sub-directory.) Drupal core is the stock element of Drupal. Bootstrap and Common libraries are defined as Drupal core and all other functionalites are defined as Drupal modules including the system module itself.

  • In a Drupal website's default configuration, content can be contributed by either registered or anonymous users (at the discretion of the administrator) and is made accessible to web visitors by a variety of selectable criteria. As of Drupal 8, Drupal has adopted some Symfony libraries into Drupal core.

  • Core modules also includes a hierarchical taxonomy system, which allows content to be categorized or tagged with key words for easier access.[15]

  • Drupal maintains a detailed changelog of core feature updates by version.Drupal can automatically notify the administrator about new versions of modules, themes, or the Drupal core.[52] It's important to update quickly after security updates are released. Before updating it is highly recommended to take backup of core, modules, theme, files and database. If there is any error shown after update or new updates is not compatible with a module, then it can be quickly replace by backup. There are several backup modules available in Drupal. On October 15, 2014, a sql injection vulnerability was announced and update released.[53] Two weeks later the Drupal security team released an advisory explaining that everyone should act under the assumption that any site not updated within 7 hours of the announcement are infected.[54] Thus, it can be extremely important to apply these updates quickly and usage of a tool to make this process easier like drush is highly recommended.

  • Database abstraction[edit]
  • Prior to version 7, Drupal had functions that performed tasks related to databases, such as SQL query cleansing, multi-site table name prefixing, and generating proper SQL queries. In particular, Drupal 6 introduced an abstraction layer that allowed programmers to create SQL queries without writing SQL.

  • Drupal 7 extends the data abstraction layer so that a programmer no longer needs to write SQL queries as text strings. It uses PHP Data Objects to abstract the database. Microsoft has written a database driver for their SQL Server.[55] Drupal 7 supports the file-based SQLite database engine, which is part of the standard PHP distribution.

  • Embracing Windows developers[edit]
  • With Drupal 7's new database abstraction layer and ability to run on the Windows web server IIS, it is now easier for Windows developers to participate in the Drupal community. A group on Drupal.org is dedicated to Windows issues.[56]

  • Accessibility[edit]
  • With the release of Drupal 7, Web accessibility has been greatly improved by the Drupal community.[57] Drupal is a good framework for building sites accessible to people with disabilities, because many of the best practices have been incorporated into the program code Core. The accessibility team is carrying on the work of identifying and resolving accessibility barriers and raising awareness within the community. Drupal 7 started the adoption of WAI-ARIA support for Rich Internet Applications and this has been carried further in Drupal 8. There have been many improvements to both the visitor and administrator sides of Drupal, especially:

  • Drag and drop functionality
  • Improved color contrast and intensity
  • Adding skip navigation to Core themes
  • Adding labels by default for input forms
  • Fixing CSS display:none with consistent methods for hiding and exposing text onfocus.
  • The community also added an accessibility gate for Core issues in Drupal 8.[58]

  • Extending the core[edit]
  • Drupal core is modular, defining a system of hooks and callbacks, which are accessed internally via an API.[59] This design allows third-party contributed modules and themes to extend or override Drupal's default behaviors without changing Drupal core's code.

  • Drupal isolates core files from contributed modules and themes. This increases flexibility and security and allows administrators to cleanly upgrade to new releases without overwriting their site's customizations.[60] The Drupal community has the saying "Never hack core", a strong recommendation that site developers do not change core files.[45]

  • Modules[edit]
  • Contributed modules offer such additional or alternate features as image galleries, custom content types and content listings, WYSIWYG editors, private messaging, third-party integration tools,[61] and more. As of September 2015 the Drupal website lists more than 31,800 free modules.[14]

  • Some of the most commonly used contributed modules include:[62]

  • Content Construction Kit (CCK): allows site administrators to dynamically create content types by extending the database schema. "Content type" describes the kind of information. Content types include, but are not limited to, events, invitations, reviews, articles, and products. The CCK Fields API is in Drupal core in Drupal 7.[63][64]
  • Views: facilitates the retrieval and presentation, through a database abstraction system, of content to site visitors. Basic views functionality has been added to core in Drupal 8.[65]
  • Panels: drag and drop layout manager that allows site administrators to visually design their site.
  • Rules: conditionally executed actions based on recurring events.
  • Features: enables the capture and management of features (entities, views, fields, configuration, etc.) into custom modules.
  • Context: allows definition of sections of site where Drupal features can be conditionally activated
  • Media: makes photo uploading and media management easier
  • Services: provides an API for Drupal.
  • Organic Groups Mailing List
  • Themes[edit]
  • As of February 2015, there are more than 2,000[14] free community-contributed themes. Themes adapt or replace a Drupal site's default look and feel.

  • Drupal themes use standardized formats that may be generated by common third-party theme design engines. Many are written in the PHPTemplate engine[66] or, to a lesser extent, the XTemplate engine.[67] Some templates use hard-coded PHP. Drupal 8 will integrate the Twig templating engine.

  • The inclusion of the PHPTemplate and XTemplate engines in Drupal addressed user concerns about flexibility and complexity.[68] The Drupal theming system utilizes a template engine to further separate HTML/CSS from PHP. A popular Drupal contributed module called 'Devel' provides GUI information to developers and themers about the page build.

  • Community-contributed themes[69] at the Drupal website are released under a free GPL license,[70] and most of them are demonstrated at the ~Drupal Theme Garden.[71]

  • Distributions[edit]
  • In the past, those wanting a fully customized installation of Drupal had to download a pre-tailored version separately from the official Drupal ~core. Today, however, a distribution defines a packaged version of Drupal that upon installation, provides a website or application built for a specific purpose.

  • The distributions offer the benefit of a new Drupal site without having to manually seek out and install third-party cont~ributed modules or adjust configuration settings.[72] They are collections of modules, themes, and associate~d configuration settings that prepare Drupal for custom operation. For example, a distribution could configure Drupal as a "brochureware" site rather than a "news" site or an "online store".

  • Architecture[edit]
  • Drupal is based on the Presentation Abstraction Control architecture, or PAC. The menu system acts as the Controller. It acce~pts input via a single source (HTTP GET and POST), routes requests to the appropriate helper functions, pulls data out of the Abstraction (nodes and, from Drupal 5 onwards, forms), and then pushes it through a filter to get a Presentation of it (the theme system). It even has multiple, parallel PAC agents in the form of blocks that push data out to a common canvas (page.tpl.php).[73]

  • Community[edit]
  • Drupal.org has a large community of us~ers and developers who provide active community support by coming up with new updates to help improve the functionality of Drupal,[74] as of March 2015, over 1,167,000 user accounts[14] and over 37,000 developer accounts.[14] The semiannual DrupalCon conferen~ce alternates between North America, Europe and Asia.[75] Attendance at DrupalCon grew from 500 at Szeged in August 2008, to over 3,700 people at Austin, Texas in June, 2014.

  • Smaller events, known as "Drupal Camps" or DrupalCamp,[76] occur throughout the year all over the world. The annual Florida DrupalCamp brings users together for Coding for a Cause that benefits a local nonprofit organization, as does the annual GLADCamp (Greater Los Angeles Drupal Camp) event, Coders with a Cause.

  • The Drupal community also organizes professional and semi-professional gatherings called meetups at a large number of venues around the world. In July, 2013, Droplabs, a coworking space in Los Angeles, California, was recogn~ized as the world's "Top Drupal Location[77]" (with 62 recorded events) when compared with other event venues over a 12-month period.

  • There are a number of active Drupal forums,[78] mailing lists[79] and discussion groups.[80] Drupal also maintains several IRC channels[81] on the Freenode network.

  • There are over 30 national communities[82] around drupal.org offering language-specific support.
  • Drupal's arrangement is to declare the way of every security weakness once the fix is released.[83][84] Overseers of Drupal locales are consequently informed of these new discharges by means of the Redesign Status module (Drupal 6) or by means of the Upgrade Director (Drupal 7).[85] Drupal keeps up a security declaration mailing list, a past filled with all security advisories,[86] a security group home page,[87] and a RSS feed[88] with the latest security advisories. In 2008, eleven security vulnerabilities were accounted for and settled in the Drupal core.[86] Security openings were likewise found and altered in 64 of the 2243 client contributed modules.[86][89] 

  • In mid-October 2014,[90] Drupal issued a "profoundly basic" security consultative with respect to a SQL infusion bug in Drupal 7, otherwise called Drupalgeddon.[91][92] Downloading and introducing a move up to Drupal 7.32 fixes the powerlessness, yet does not expel any indirect access introduced by programmers if the webpage has as of now been compromised.[93] Assaults started not long after the weakness was reported. As indicated by the Drupal security group, where a site was not fixed inside hours of the declaration, it ought to be considered bargained and taken disconnected by being supplanted with a static HTML page while the chairman of its server must be informed that different locales on the same server may likewise have been traded off. To take care of the issue, the site must be reestablished utilizing reinforcements from before October 15, be fixed and physically redesigned, and anything converged from the site must be auditedIn an article[95] about the reception of Drupal by the Whitehouse.gov site, Slate partner editorial manager Chris Wilson[96] records some basic reactions of Drupal. Different reactions have included: 

  • Convenience: Parts of the Drupal 6 organization interface were seen to confound and threatening to a few, especially for new administrators.[97][98][99] As indicated by Dries Buytaert, Drupal 7 tended to 90% of the issues recognized by Ease of use tests led at the Colleges of Minnesota and Baltimore.[100][101] To accomplish this, Acquia (the organization established by the undertaking lead of Drupal) procured client experience creator Mark Boulton to work with the Drupal people group to outline an enhanced UI for Drupal's organization interface.[102] The lion's share of his group's configuration work has been executed by the group in Drupal 7. The 2011 ease of use test comes about because of the College of Minnesota Office of Data Innovation demonstrate that the greater part of the real convenience issues distinguished in Drupal 6 are either immeasurably enhanced or non-existent in Drupal 7. Be that as it may, some new convenience issues were identified.[103][104] Since the arrival of Drupal 7 there are currently different conveyances and applications to improve the Back-end Ease of use of Drupal, for example, Drupal Gardens,[105] Open Enterprise[106] and Mitkom Builder.[107] 

  • Expectation to absorb information: A few clients portray Drupal as being hard to master.[108][109] Drupal's numerous contributed modules can have covering usefulness and have been accounted for as overpowering to new users.[110] 

  • In reverse similarity (for programming advancement): Drupal does not focus on in reverse similarity crosswise over major revisions.[111] This implies module and subject engineers may need to adjust their code to be good. Be that as it may, Drupal's arrangement is to not change how it uses one's information. This implies information from past adaptations will even now usable without modification in the new release.[112][113] Drupal records any contrary qualities, permitting the client to settle on educated choices about when and whether to overhaul. 

  • Execution/versatility: In 2008, execution tests between Drupal 6.1 and Joomla 1.5 showed that Drupal's pages were conveyed "essentially speedier" than those of Joomla.[114] In spite of this, contentions over rate persist.[115] Drupal is prone to be slower than an uncommon reason application for a given undertaking. For instance, WordPress commonly outflanks Drupal as a solitary client blogging instrument. Drupal positions itself for more extensive applications prerequisites that are outside the extent of all the more barely engaged applications.[116] Drupal offers reserving to store different page components, the utilization of which brought about a 508% change in one benchmark.[117] When utilizing Drupal's default Page Store instrument, the reserved pages are conveyed just to mysterious clients, so contributed modules must be introduced to permit storing content for signed in users.[118][119] Like execution, versatility (the capacity to add servers to handle developing quantities of guests with predictable reaction) can turn into a worry on vast, intelligent locales. MySQL's inquiry reserving can diminish the heap on the database server brought about by Drupal's high question rate.[120][121] Drupal stores database composition metadata and in addition components, for example, pieces, frames and menus.[122] Drupal 7 builds execution in database inquiries and lessens PHP code usage.[123] 

  • Integrability with facilitating structures: As a result of Drupal's requesting inquiry prerequisites, Drupal-based sites ~can rapidly turn out to be exceptionally exhausting to hosts whose databases dwell on a machine separate from their HTTP server. While the issue can typically be tended to by actualizing forceful reserving as portrayed above, such techniques might be unimplementable in situations where the host does not offer access to PHP quickening agents like XCache or APC. Drupal has modules that encourage comparative storing without requiring exceptional PHP extensions.[124][125] 

  • The Drupal center inquiry is incapable at seeking content:[citation needed] There are contributed modules that will extraordinarily enhance the hunt usefulness on a Drupal site, yet they are not effortle~ssly open because of a high expectation to absorb information and the trouble clients have when all is said in done of finding the right module.[citation needed] One of the faceted pursuit choices is Apache Solr Look Combination module, notwithstanding, the module requires a committed server or virtual private server (VPS) to work in light of the fact that Solr must keep running on a servlet holder, e.g. Tomcat, Wharf or Tar. These prerequisites make it harder for a Drupal site to have a useful pursuit highlight. Accordingly a few organizations have made Apache Solr SaaS items. 

  • Numerous distributed, yet inadequate or obsolete modules[126] While Drupal's website gloats more than 30,000 downloadable modules, seeking the Drupal module index finds numerous that are deficient relinquished ~tasks and don't work by any means, work for an obsolete adaptation because of absence of in reverse similarity, or are unusable because of genuine bugs. This is because of the open source nature~ of Drupal, and the way that anybody is allowed to begin a module and distribute it on drupal.org. Modules which have a dynamic upkeep group are regularly exceedingly cleaned, secure, and about bug free. 

  • Starting 12/7/2015 there were 32,628 modules posted on drupal.org. 14,606 are "sandbox" modules which are portrayed as "exploratory code for designer utilize as it were." 18,021 modules are viewed as "full undertak~ings." Of these full tasks, 10,771 (57%) are "Under Dynamic Advancement," This is the best situation. 2,690 (15%) are "Upkeep settles just" where the maintainer is no more keen on growing new elements yet has resolved to address any security powerlessness which may be found. These modules ought to likewise be viewed as sheltered to utilize. 1,344 (7%) are denoted "No further improvement," while 1,043 (6%) are viewed as "out of date," frequently on the gr~ounds that this usefulness has been exceptional tended to through another module. 2,173 (12%) full venture modules have not had their improvement status set. The Drupal site incorporates a page with guidelines for engineers on assuming control upkeep of unmaintained ventures. 

  • Hard to unit test:[127] Drupal 7 doesn't take after MVC structure and stores the greater part of its designs in database and accordingly, unit testing the code without touching the database turns out to be to a great degree troublesome. Subsequently, designers have depended on utilizing reconciliation ~testing systems, for example, Red Test or conduct driven advancement structure, for example, Behat and Codeception. Drupal 8 has taken an incredible step in making it less demanding for engineers to compose unit testable code.

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