What is the difference between Truth and Validity


  1. Truth and legitimacy are two distinct ideas. Truth is predicated of suggestions though legitimacy is predicated of contentions. Suggestions are either valid or false. 

  2. Deductive contentions are either legitimate or invalid. We have noted before that a deductive contention cases to give decisive evidence to its decision. 

  3. A deductive contention is substantial if and just if the premises give indisputable confirmation to its decision. This idea of legitimacy of deductive contention can likewise be communicated in both of the accompanying two ways. 

  4. (i) If the premises of a legitimate contention are all valid, then its decision should likewise be valid. 

  5. (ii) It is incomprehensible for the determination of a legitimate contention to be false while its premises are valid. 

  6. Any deductive contention that is not legitimate is called invalid. Thus, a deductive contention is invalid if its preemies are all valid however the conclusion is false. Take note of that sometimes, regardless of the possibility that the premises and the conclusion are all valid yet the contention might be invalid. In all cases invalid contentions some of our principles of surmising are abused. 

  7. The above comment on deductive legitimacy demonstrates the association between legitimacy of a contention and reality or misrepresentation of its premises and conclusion. Be that as it may, the association is not a straightforward one. Of the eight conceivable mixes of truth or lie of premises and the conclusion and legitimacy or weakness of contentions, just a single is totally discounted. 

  8. The main thing that can't occur is that the premises are all valid, the conclusion is false and the contention is deductively legitimate. 

  9. Given beneath are the other seven mixes of genuine and false premises and conclusion with illustration; 

  10. (i) There are substantial contentions whose premises and the conclusions are all valid. 

  11. Illustration: 

  12. All men a mortal. 

  13. All rulers are men. 

  14. Subsequently, all lords are mortal. 

  15. (ii) There are legitimate contentions whose premises and also the conclusions are all false. 

  16. Case: 

  17. All felines are six-legged. 

  18. All mutts are felines. 

  19. In this way, all pooches are six-legged. 

  20. (iii) There are legitimate contentions where the premises are all false yet the conclusion is valid. 

  21. Case: 

  22. All fishes are warm blooded creatures. 

  23. All whales are fishes. 

  24. In this way, all whales are warm blooded creatures. 

  25. (iv) A contention may have genuine premises and a genuine conclusion and by and by the contention might be invalid. 

  26. Illustration: 

  27. All men a mortal. 

  28. All rulers are mortal. 

  29. Consequently, all rulers are men. 

  30. (v) There are invalid contentions whose premises are false however the conclusion is valid. 

  31. Illustration: 

  32. All warm blooded animals have wings. 

  33. All rabbits have wings. 

  34. Hence, all rabbits are warm blooded animals. 

  35. (vi) There are invalid contentions in which premises and conclusion are all false. 

  36. Illustration: 

  37. All felines are biped. 

  38. All canines are biped. 

  39. Hence, all puppies are felines 

  40. (vii) Ultimately, a contention in which the premises are valid and the conclusion is false will be invalid. 

  41. Illustration: 

  42. All Telugus are Indians. 

  43. Nehru is not a Tamil. 

  44. Along these lines, Nehru is not an Indian. 

  45. We can compress our discoveries in the accompanying unthinkable way. 

  46. Start 

  47. Conclusion 

  48. Legitimacy of the contention 



  49. Substantial 

  50. Invalid 



  51. XXX 

  52. Invalid 



  53. Substantial 

  54. Invalid 



  55. Substantial 

  56. Invalid 

  57. The above illustrations demonstrate that invalid contentions take into account every conceivable mix genuine or false premises and genuine or false conclusion. We refered to cases of substantial contentions with false conclusion and also invalid contentions with genuine conclusions. Therefore, it can be seen that reality or misrepresentation of the conclusion does not without anyone else decide the legitimacy or deficiency of the contention. So additionally the legitimacy of a contention does not without anyone else's input ensure reality of its decision. 

  58. We additionally saw that substantial contentions may have just three out of the four conceivable truth commitments. A substantial contention can't have genuine premises and a false conclusion. As it were if a contention is legitimate and its premises are valid, then we can make certain that the conclusion is valid.

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